Pair O' Dice

The pictures on this site were either provided by Dan Kubota, Howard Klein or myself unless otherwise specified.

Charles "Pop" Squires stated that in 1920, this property was where the counting station was located. This station was used to take a survey for the "new" highway which would one day become Las Vegas Boulevard South.

In 1929, a businessman from Detroit began building a night club on the then new highway to Los Angeles. He borrowed money from Frank Detra who had moved to Vegas in 1927. Before the club was finished, the man backed out of the loan and Detra finished the club in 1930, naming it the Pair O' Dice. Most historians call this the first nightclub on the three miles of desert road. It was opened only at night, offering fine Italian meals, dance bands, and jazz performers, along with the standard gaming tables. This was a private club (knock knock - what's the password?) as gambling didn't become legalized until 1931.

Frank Detra & Family
Donated by Nevada State Museum

On this site was also a house that the Detra family lived in, with a second smaller building furnished as a bedroom for an occasional visitor. Rumor has it that the "occasional" visitor was usually one of Al Capone's men and other mob members.

On July 4, 1931, the Pair O' Dice opened as a public nightclub.

It advertised that it was artificially cooled by a washed air cooling system. The drinking fountains were made by General Electric and installed by H.E. Saviers & Son, Inc. George D. Clark was credited as builder, and the refrigerators were made by Frigidaire, and installed by C.E. Pembroke & Fred Rumph. Lumber was provided by Woitishek Lumber Company, and all floor coverings and draperies were provided by Las Vegas Mercantile.

Pair O' Dice

On February 3, 1932, the Pair O' Dice announced that construction to enlarge the club had begun that morning. The enlargement would accommodate up to 150 people. Harvey Bymen stated that the club had been handicapped by lack of room to handle large parties, and the club should be completed by February 6, 1932.

On April 2, 1932, Dice put an ad in the paper apparently denying rumors that it was closing. It stated "That's a lot of hooey, Big Boy! We are NOT Going to Close Up the Pair O Dice." Entertainment was provided by Jeanne Raye/Billy Barron. On April 30, 1932, Dice advertised dinners at $1.00, and the entertainment was provided by The Howard Sisters, headliners of radio, stage and screen. H.H. "Red" Switzer was the manager.

On January 4, 1933, the Pair O' Dice closed. Switzer said that lack of sufficient patronage failed to pay expenses to keep the club operating. The club reopened on April 8, 1933, under the management of Oscar Klawitter and Howard Jones.

Since prohibition was in effect, liquor was banned from clubs. In July of 1933, Dice was served with temporary abatement papers for serving liquor.

After the abatement, the Detras had a grand opening on December 16, 1933, featuring Francis Beck & his Orchestra, and international dancers Marguerite and Roland. Italian and American dinners were $1.00 and $1.50 with no cover charge.

In February of 1934, Dice was offering free transportation, and catering to private parties and banquets. Jimmy Callahan was meeting guests at the bar.

Dice celebrated Thanksgiving on November 27, 1935, by offering $1.00 for a full course Italian dinner of turkey or chicken. Guests danced to the music of The Pair O' Dice Boys with entertainment being provided by Babette Burke, who previously appeared at the Palomar Hotel in Hollywood, California.

After selling the club (date unknown), Detra moved to Reno and died in 1984.

For a short time around May of 1936, the club went under the name Ambassador Night Club, and listed its phone number as 359. It offered dining, dancing, and games, with entertainment being provided by 3 Sharp Sisters.

Guy McAfee

In January of 1939, former Los Angeles Police Captain and Commander of the Vice Squad, Guy McAfee, bought the club, renovated it for approximately $20,000, and renamed it the 91 Club. McAfee's plans for this club was a swank resort designed to cater to the fashionable gambling trade from Southern California. Plans showed construction of a number of bungalows on the property adjacent to the club, and an airplane landing field nearby.

On March 15, 1939, 91 Club opened with Fred L. Kreiger as manager and Harvey Bymun was in charge of gaming. Club 91, whose phone number was 91, offered no cover charge, dinners for $1.00 consisting of shrimp, fruit or tomato juice, soup, half chicken, trout, pork chops, salad, potato, vegetables, coffee and desert. For $1.50, one could receive the Dinner de Luxe of celery, olives, shrimp, fruit or tomato juice, soup, spaghetti, T-bone steak, New York sirloin, filet Mignon, boneless stuffed squab, wild rice, salad, potato, vegetables, coffee and desert. Music was performed by the Famous 91 Club Orchestra.

R.E. Griffith, a theater magnate, and his architect nephew, William J. Moore, saw the El Rancho Vegas in 1941, at the beginning of the three mile desert road accompanied by some bars and decided there was more than enough room for another western themed resort. They proceeded to purchase five acres of land for $1,000 an acre including the 91 Club plus 30 acres just to the right of the club.

After he received the $35,000 check from Griffith, McAfee said to him: "If you'd bargained harder, I would've sold for less." Griffith replied: "If you'd bargained harder, I would've paid more."

Morton Saiger had once said that McAfee, for a solid month, walked around showing everybody a cashier's check for $35,000. He was convinced that he had caught a sucker. By the 1980's, Saiger stated, it would be impossible to buy even a few inches of land on the Strip for $1,000.00.

Griffith put Moore in charge, but Griffith was the driving force behind the construction. Moore, a 1936 graduate in architecture from Oklahoma A&M, had designed theaters in Oklahoma and Texas.

R.E. GriffithBill Moore

". . . Mr. Griffith owned a hotel in Gallup, New Mexico, called the Hotel El Rancho, which I had been partially involved in along with an architect out of Dallas by the name of Dilbeck. Mr. Griffith wanted to build an additional hotel - having in mind a chain of hotels, and asked me to meet him and go with him to Deming, New Mexico. Deming was on a national, well-traveled highway and had during the First World War some hundred thousand troops at all times as a port of embarkation. And the reason for him knowing about Deming is that, at one time, there had been approximately 30 theaters in town.

Many of the theaters still existed in the buildings and approximately 12 of them were still standing with all the original equipment. So he accomplished two things in Deming. Mr. Griffith wanted to commission me to make a deal with the people that owned the theaters and take the theaters over, as well as buy all the existing theaters and remodel same into store buildings, such that they would not be converted into a theater structure. That, and the possible location of building another western-type hotel which would go in with a chain of hotels he intended to name Hotel El Rancho. We went to Deming; made the deal with the theater people

In the meantime I'd heard about the activity and possible future activity in Las Vegas, Nevada, it being further west and on cross-country highways with the gambling as an added inducement. We later went to Los Angeles, talked with various and sundry suppliers for the possible construction in Deming of the theaters and the hotel people concerning the opportunities in Las Vegas. The recommendation was real strong on Las Vegas. In the opinion of the hotel people, it was far superior for a hotel location than Deming, New Mexico.

. . . At that particular time we came to Las Vegas, examined the various opportunities on the purchase of property, found that Mr. Hull of the Hull hotel chain had, prior to us arriving, constructed and opened a hotel under the name of Hotel El Rancho. Our reservation for our stay in Las Vegas had been made by the Hull Hotel people in the El Rancho out of Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles.

We came to Las Vegas and found that the opportunities were fabulous. It did present a problem in that the opportunities, we felt, were quite some time in the future, as they would have been also in Deming, New Mexico. And the hotel that Mr. Hull had opened under the name of Hotel El Rancho was of a western type design; while not exactly similar to designs that Griffith had in mind, they interfered with his planned method of promotion. He couldn't use the name El Rancho. So the name was thought up by Mr. Griffith, and he also came up with the slogan which we always thought a very good one: The Early West in Modern Splendor." - William Moore, August 1981

The moniker reflected Griffith's notion that Las Vegas was the last frontier, where freedom and the Western spirit abounded. The architect for this project was Richard R. Stadelman. Construction began in December of 1941.

"I was commissioned to design and build the Hotel Last Frontier in Las Vegas by R.E. Griffith, who was my uncle and the principal in a theater chain in Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arkansas." - William Moore, August 1981

This being during World War II, finding building materials was a job in itself. They decided to incorporate the 91 Club into their plans. Woitishek Lumber Company, who provided lumber for the construction of El Rancho, provided lumber for the property as well. Moore designed a sprawling ranch on 5 acres of the total 175 acres they owned.

"Well, it affected [the hotel] in quite a number of ways. Number one, in the construction of the hotel. If you will remember, the government set up controls on building, and they had set up a control agency known as the War Production Board, which controlled the issuance of an establishment's ability to purchase anything that was on a critical list which had been published by the government. . . . Includes wiring and plumbing, all building materials. Essentially it got into lumber, got into the electrical materials for the electrical work, got into plumbing and pipe for the plumbing work. It got into fixtures. It got into all types of building materials, you might say, including down as far as the carpets. It restricted the use of [such items] except in the case of one's ability to show his connection to the war effort. Naturally, [in] the building of a hotel one could show a certain amount of ability to conform with the war effort in that you could house the military, and housing was necessary in this particular area due to Nellis Air Force Based [at the time known as the Las Vegas Army Air Field]. But again, we were up against one particular problem in that we could show no connection [to] helping out the war effort with anything to do with gambling.

They exempted anybody that had started construction on such type of structure, providing they could prove that they had the material before the instruction of the War Production [Board]. We were in position to prove that, except the government, during the war, had the power to go in on any construction and take the materials when they were needed in the construction of anything to do with the military effort. They did come to us while we were under construction and asked us to prove the existence of these materials and so forth. We had no alternative but to prove it if we wanted to continue with construction. But naturally, in proving same it gave the government a list of everything that you had. So they came in on our construction job at the hotel and essentially grabbed all of the material we had having to do with anything electrical and took the material in trucks to the Army air base at Nellis. This being the case, we were up against the problem of continuing the operation. Having no electrical material forced us to go to the northern and eastern Nevada and purchase two mines in order that we could obtain the electrical material in the mines. We sent a crew up there to strip the material out of the mines: wiring, casing, pipe, major control switches, even small switches. We had brought an electrician out of Gallup, New Mexico, to run the electrical end of this business. Naturally, this electrician had operated in and around Gallup for a number of years and had wried any number of these big mines. So when we went over the problem with him, the fact the government had taken all these supplies, he stated that all of the small supplies could be obtained in and around Gallup, but that the larger equipment, including the larger wiring and whatnot, could not be obtained. His suggestion was that if we could find a couple of underground operations where they had been forced to run electrical supply lines and so forth, that there would be enough major electrical equipment, including wire and conduit, that wouldn't' compare enough with the code that we could obtain the exemptions against the code and go ahead and be able to finish the operations. They [Board] could've if they had gotten a hold of it, but they had to get a hold of it and know you had it. That's the reason we made the deal on the basis [that] no reporting of the sale would ever be made." - William Moore, August, 1981

Another problem presented to the resort would be food as it was being rationed and people in resorts wasn't to be rationed on their food.

"Again, getting back to the War Production Board, it was necessary to have points, which were done in the form of stamps, in order to purchase anything on the critical list with the Army, Navy, and whatnot. Well, to be perfectly frank, there were a few items that were not on the list. We, you had to have points for sugar, had to have points for beef and might near anything in the form of meat. You had to have points for gasoline, which involved the transportation of the particular merchandise and whatnot, so that you're really up against a problem. We were able to get a reasonable number of points, but the thing that really helped us was the fact that we did take care of the military. When we were in a problem and needed the points, we just went to the military and said, 'Here, you want us to take care of you; now you take care of us. You make it possible for us to get those points so that we can purchase the stuff we want.' We were able to do that - all unofficially.

" . . . We bought two ranches in Moapa Valley. One we converted into a dairy with 300 milk cows and bought most of the milk [products]. [We got our herd] out of Cache Valley, Utah. [We] made our own butter, were able to make our own buttermilk. Got our own milk, you might say, in a much more desirable form and fresher than you would've been able to get out of the local dairy. We later took the second ranch, which we had set up as a dude ranch in the beginning, and converted it into registered cattle and the growing of cattle for butchering for the hotel. . . . We were able to obtain permits for the rest, so that essentially we were able to sell the cattle to processors, who turned around and sold the meat back to us. . . . When it got up to the point that we didn't have any points and we couldn't make a trade with the Army or Navy at Nellis, then we just sold the cattle to the processors, who in turn were able to furnish us with enough stamps to make our own cattle purchases back.

. . . {the dude ranch called Hidden Valley Ranch} - We fixed it up, made all the repairs and painted the place inside and out and put in corrals and so forth and so on, but we never operated the thing as a dude ranch. We had the intention, but we had so much trouble in inducing people to go there, even as guests, wherein it cost them nothing, that we felt that in view of that it would be practically impossible to induce people to pay to be customers of the dude ranch. So we never operated it. . . . We tried to analyze it, it became apparent that they came to Las Vegas for entertainment, and they felt that the type of entertainment that they obtained at a dude ranch they could obtain at home. They did not have the type of entertainment and the various facilities such as gambling and so forth available at home. . . . {free guests} would go with the idea that they were going to be there for a week, 10 days, and within two or three days after they got there they started wanting to come back to Las Vegas. So, in view of that, we just never opened it up as a dude ranch. We sold it. We operated it as a regular ranch. We had two ranches up there, really, and one of them we operated in such a way and planted feed and whatnot to feed out cattle, and we did feed out a number of head and butchered there on the ranch. We did operate [the other] as a dairy. We had, I believe, a 300-cow diary, and we put in the automatic milkers and operated it as a regular diary. [We] used what milk we could in our own establishment, and what we couldn't use, we sold on the open market in Las Vegas. I believe we sold it {dude ranch} to Mr. A.R. Rupert, who was in the plumbing-contracting business in Las Vegas. [It was] somewhere around 1945 or 1946 that we sold it. We sold the dairy ranch to Kenny Searles, who operated the Anderson Dairy here in Las Vegas. He continued to operate it as a dairy ranch, and I think it is still is operating it as a dairy ranch." - William Moore, August, 1981

During the building of the resort, the residents were against it stating "The town just can't stand another [hotel]".

On October 30, 1942, 18 months after the El Rancho Vegas opened, the Strip's second casino hotel resort and R.E. Griffith's dream, Hotel Last Frontier opened with 105 rooms. Moore was Manager, Bill Walshe was Managing Director, Maxine Lewis was the entertainment director/floor show producer, Joe Schramm was the bar/cocktail manager, Evelyn Harris was the dining room hostess, Mabel Smith was the cocktail lounge hostess, "Doc" Ladd was the chef, Ralph Stoughton was Casino Manager, Ballard Barron was Stoughton's assistant, Harold Hines was the casino cashier, George Sweeney was chief clerk and Senor Clato was bell captain.

Hotel Last Frontier

Opening night entertainment was provided by Gus Martell & his Fifth Ave. Orchestra, Bert Wheeler, Kenneth Karpf, Carlos Malla, Will Aherne, Diana Del Rio, Darby & Ardelle, and Will & Gladys Aherne. Dinner for opening night was $3.50.

"I'll never forget opening night, all the town's leading citizens attended, stepping over the rugs as the carpet men were putting down the last tacks. I also will never forget the crowd shaking their heads and saying it would never be a success as the hotel was too big and plushy for Las Vegas.

My show budget at that time was $1,000 for three acts. Advertising for the show consisted of just two pictures of the stars, and they were always dressed in Western style. The ads I ran in the Hollywood Reporter and Daily Variety consisted of the hotel personnel on horseback going for the mail and all sorts of gimmicks such as meeting guests at the train or plane with a stage coach or any other Western vehicle I would find." - Maxine Lewis, 1988


Where El Rancho rambled like a motor court, the Last Frontier was a single sprawling building. Several distinct but connected segments gave the appearance of a main street from an Old West town.

"The main building was in the form of a U. The part [with] the rooms was in the form of an old fort--in other words, completely enclosed on four sides with entrances under the second floor back into the center section, which was highly landscaped in a western-type character. There was an outside boiler room or machinery room that housed most of the major machinery for the operation. Other than house the boilers, it housed the major air conditioning equipment. We used cold water circulated in tunnels under the hotel to cool, with an individual unit in each room." - William Moore, August, 1981


Gathering on front lawn

Publicity Photo

The lobby portion was the tallest, with a broad shingled roof and a porch stretching across its front. It was made principally of stone blocks with a huge double fireplace as the center of interest. Pancho Villa's saddle and a collection of guns used by famous and infamous characters were exhibited throughout.

"The ceilings were of hewn timbers--logs--rough-sawed boards antiqued in such a way as to look many years old. And the whole structure was laid out on that basis. The stone came from Red Rock Canyon, but the installation of same was made principally by Navajo Indians that we were able to bring in her from Gallup, New Mexico." - William Moore, August 1981

The balcony leading from the lobby had stairs of split logs. The wooden railing of the stairway was sanded down which bore the marks where hundreds of hands held fast. The terrace was surrounded by the wagon wheels.

"A fellow by the name of Gibbs, was you might say, a teamster in Las Vegas, [he] actually was in the business of plowing up land with horse-drawn equipment because the horse could get into spots the big tractor couldn't. He happened to have horses, and he didn't own tractors. Over a period of years he had been in this business to the extent that he had wagons break down, and people would come to him wanting to sell him wheels and so forth. In view of the fact that there were so few people around that were interested in purchasing such stuff, he acquired most of this stuff very cheap. That be the case, he had an awful lot of equipment in the way of wagon wheels, horse-drawn harness, that is harness for horses on horse-drawn vehicles, and anything to do with a horse in the form of construction equipment. Through Gibbs we were able to purchase most of the wagon wheels and what. Some of the stuff we were able to purchase out of Gallup, due to Mr. Griffith having built a similar type hotel in Gallup and making certain contacts there. But most of it came through Gibbs and was purchased in Las Vegas." William Moore, August, 1981

Ramona Room

The 600 seat Ramona Room, the resort's main showroom and dining room, contained flagstone and large wooden beams. The stage was shake roofed with big logs to support it out over the dance floor. When the room first opened, it contained a sound system of organ music that played "Ramona" all the time.

Leo Carrillo Carrillo Room

Carrillo Room

South of the Ramona Room, faced in stone, with French doors that led out onto a patio ringed in wagon wheels which held 600 seats was The Carrillo Room. Named for actor Leo Carrillo, the Cisco Kid's sidekick, was the octagonal tower that had been part of the 91 Club. In this room hung a large picture of Carrillo dressed in his outfit and astride his horse.

"Mr. Griffith, due to having operated a theater a number of years, knew and had made friends with many performers in the theater-film industry. He knew and was a very good friend of Leo Carrillo, who was known at that particular time as quite a western star. He got a hold of Mr. Carrillo, asked him to come to Las Vegas [and] asked for permission on the telephone to name a room after him, which essentially was a bar. Essentially the Pair O'Dice Club was made up of a bar and a casino. We had a make-believe fireplace built into the bar. And we took out the dining room, naturally. We made restrooms and storage rooms out of a part of the space in the kitchen, and we used the other portion with the bar and the extension of the dining room as the Leo Carrillo Bar and had a picture of Leo Carrillo as a part of the decoration in the room, a very large picture." - William Moore, August, 1981

Gay 90s Bar

The Gay 90s Bar next to that had a porch held up with natural logs. The three-story room wings contained the 105 rooms which had doubled-loaded corridors and covered garages for 400 cars. The third story consisted of three rooms.

21 Club b/w 21 Club

"The other bar was called the Gay 90s. [It] was a bar out of the old Arizona Club, which was in Block 16 of the red light district right in the heart of Las Vegas when I arrived in Las Vegas. We purchased the bar and the front entrance to the bar, which happened to be in the form of leaded glass, and put it into the hotel as the Gay 90s Bar, used it exactly as it was originally built other than the fact that we did add some saddle bar stools made out of leather in the form of a western saddle. Naturally, we had to make it comfortable. We didn't use the complete saddle design, but looking at the read of the bar stool was like looking at the rear of a saddle. So in some cases, there were stools big enough for two people because you would actually be, what looked like, seated on the side of the saddle." - William Moore, August, 1981


Other features included the Canary Room for breakfast, lunch and banquets, and the 21 Club Casino. It advertised the patio, terrace, swimming pool, sun deck, stage coach rides, horse back rides, and pack trips.

21 Club Casino


Club 21/Carrilllo Room

Covered Wagon
Miniature covered wagon in the lobby

Horse back riding

The Trophy Room contained mounted animals on display. In many respects, this room resembled a sportsman's lodge.

Trophy Room

The gift shop was owned by Moore's sister. It contained unusual Indian and Mexican jewelry, and western costumes for both men and women.

"[The gift shop sold] all types of western jewelry, Indian jewelry, turquoise, silver, even down to gold and whatnot. But there was more turquoise and silver than gold items. Then they sold saddles; they sold bridles. There was one silver-mounted saddle and bridle there that was worth thousands of dollars that they did sell to somebody out of that gift shop. Who they sold to, I don't remember." - William Moore, August, 1981

The rooms had furniture specially designed. The beds had head and footboards of dyed saddle leather, and window valances and mirror frames to match.


Each room had a three-in-one cabinet which was a dresser, a desk and a dressing table all in one piece. Stream-lined upholstered chairs in harmony with drapes and bedspreads were provided. Each room had a separate air-conditioning/heating unit, controlled by the guest. These units were connected directly with the big power plant which was part of the hotel. Each room had a private bath, tiled about the tub and on the floor. The color scheme harmonized with the theme of the bedroom.

"We had commissioned various furniture manufacturers to submit designs on furniture for the rooms. We selected the furniture from the designs, and they built according to their drawings so that you didn't have just a stereo-typed pice of furniture." - William Moore, August, 1981

The Frontier also drilled a new deep well and erected a large water storage tank. Almost a mile of tunnels were dug at the hotel to lay utility pipes. The engineer lived in a house on the back of the property. For fire protection, hose boxes were installed every 50 feet inside and outside the building.

There was a 238 foot sundeck leading from the second floor rooms on the north wing. Rooms from the west wing lead onto a small porch which had stairs going down to the area where a 250-foot patio garden was being planted. Badminton and tennis courts was in the process of being built.

It was reported that 3,700 trees, plants and shrubs were placed around the grounds.

Front and center, right on the highway was the pool, which was the hotel's best advertisement to road-weary drivers. Surrounded by a split rail fence, the pool was contained in a corral that linked it to the hotel's theme. Also placed at the pool were pretty girls to further entice travelers to stop.



Moore gathered authentic pioneer day furnishings from all over the West. Griffith and Moore purchased many items from existing downtown casinos, such as an antique 40 foot mahogany bar with French beveled glass from the Arizona Club on downtown's Fremont Street which once housed Las Vegas' most fashionable house of prostitution. The bar and its fittings had been rescued and installed in the Horn Room where it was the center of attention. The bar had a bunch of old stuffed animals on top. The barstools were saddles with the stirrups still on them. The ceiling of the Horn Room featured the large wooden beams that were found throughout the resort as well as light fixtures in the form of wagon wheels which were suspended on heavy chains. Customers sat in comfortable booths that ran the length of the room. The carpeting was of a floral design and was done in blues and deep reds. The decor of this room was representative of the western flair that the entire resort expressed.

Stagecoaches picked up guests at the airport, packed trips could be arranged, and a stable stood out back. In spirit if not size, the resort rivaled the great rustic park resorts of the West - the 1904 Old Faithful Inn by Robert Reamer in Yellowstone, the 1926 Ahwanee by Gilbert Stanley Underwood in Yosemite, and the 1934 Bright Angel Lodge by Mary Colter at Grand Canyon.

The Frontier also provided guests with a sea vessel for charter on Lake Mead.

The Frontier

Moore also utilized his connections with the movie theatres in bringing celebrities to their resort.

When Moore raised Entertainment Director Maxine Lewis' budget to $5,000, she signed on Sophie Tucker. Tucker didn't know where Las Vegas was located when first contacted. Lewis and the town's Fire Chief picked her up at the railroad station and sat her on the hook and ladder truck, where Tucker was overwhelmed. Tucker who loved firemen and all accouterments, said it was the biggest thrill she had ever experienced.

One of the times Moore wanted Tucker to perform at the Frontier, she had been staying at a hotel in Reno when Moore phoned her. He asked her to come to the Frontier and play a two-week engagement. She responded "I've got a problem. I owe the hotel here in Reno $1,500, I've got eight trunks full of costumes and I'm flat busted." Moore stated "I told her I would send a station wagon to pick her up and that the driver would have enough money to pay off her debts to the hotel. Whatever the cost would be her fee for performing, plus she would get a room and free meals." Tucker accepted and duly played her two weeks.

On April 20, 1942, Frontier hosted a war bond banquet. This was a stag affair with cocktails in the Canary Room and dinner in the Ramona Room. The ads stated "All Red Blooded Men Invited as Guests - Bring Your Men Friends That Will Agree to Buy Not Less Than a $1,000 Bond". A note on the ad from the Frontier stated "We of the hotel feel that $250,000 is the least amount to expect. That's our quota - watch us go over it."

After dinner, Maxine Lewis was introduced by master of ceremonies Bill Moore, who sang two patriotic songs. Otto Underhill, chairman of the bond drive for Clark County paid high tribute to Griffith for his part in the bond drive and Griffith thanked the people of Las Vegas "who made this affair the huge success that it is." Olvie and George, the midgets performing at the Frontier, stepped up on the banquet table and marched all around the hall, on top of the table calling out the pledges as they were made.

"The fundamental reasons we must buy war bonds, speaking bluntly, are to save our necks, to accelerate our victory over barbarism, preserve the lives of our military and return to our peaceful way of life." - L.E. Hyland, chief engineer for the Bendix Corporation

The 165 guests raised more than $400,000. Some guests that were invited were contact men for companies. Because of this move, the following donations were made: Standard Oil Company - $75,000, and Sears-Robuck - $50,000. In addition, P.J. Goumond and Dick Clough pledged $10,000 a piece, Jake Kaufman, manager of a local store pledged $750 on behalf of the store's employees, Guy McAfee pledged $7,000, and J.T. Watters pledged $5,000.

The rest of the contributors were Jake Coffman, Walter Harness, Al Tiffany, Floyd G. Behner, J.D. Porter, William Mendelsohn, Cliff Leonard, Jack Albright, E.D. Hickman, D.C. Sutherland, George Parry, A.A. Schaeffer, Halley Stewart, Max Kelch, Tim Harnedy, C.B. Eisenberg, D.K. Edwards, Blaine Johnson, Dr. R. Agatewood, J. Ensley, F. Wilson, S.M. Paher, C.D. Breeze, Marion Earl, S.L. Gelber, Paul Hogan, C.T. Isley, Ed Ciliax, L.A. Woitishek, Nevada Auto Parts, Arthur T. Webb, A.J. Adams, Harvey Perry, Harvey Luce, Sam Friedman, Leo McNamee, Louis DuBois, A.S. Henderson, O.K. Gragson, Homer Riney, J.C. Grayson, M.B. Hicks, Arthur Anderson, S.L. Butterfield, James Sill, M.L. Aranoff, Nate Mack, L.R. Schway, Harry Allen, Reed Whipple, J.R. Lewis, Ted Porger, Ed Spitzer, Harry Mack, A.C. Grant, G.D. Blaine, C.G. Fallwell, P.J. Goumond, A.B. Witeher, James Powers, Terry Cowan, Chas. DeArmond, Sam Duidi, Kenney Searles, B. Hoover, Sebastian Mikulich, H. Manente, Carrol Beckley, James Cashman, Jo Cardinal, Sal McCoy, L.O. Hawkins, Louis Pisetta, Ed W. Clark. Dr. E. Winter, A.E. Cahlan, Art Ham, Dr. Hale Slavin, Jams Bilbray, A.P. Rubidoux, Phil Cummings, E.A. Honrath, J.W. Wilson, Doc Ladd, Culinary Workers Union, Lloyd H. Tritle, Paul Rapoport, Edgar McCullum, M.H. Gordon, A.J. Wood, F.F. Garside, C.S. Wengert, P.O. Silvagni, Alfred Swartz, R.J. Kaltenborn, M.W. Davis, W.J. Rhoads, M.W. Ohman, Frank Wallace, James Martin, H.P. Marble, A.L. Riddle, Fred Alward, D.S. Smarr, O. Udell Call, T.F. Ball, George H. Norris, Lawrence DuHamel, E.O. Underhill, A.H. Harrington and Fred Neilsen.

On December 27, 1942, Frontier hosted a parade and Rodeo with all proceeds going to the USO. The barbecue was free for all contestants. This charity rodeo included a ladies musical chair event, wild cow milking, and steer riding. The prize money was $1,000, and the sponsors besides the Frontier were Bead City Drug, Modern Food, Batlett Brothers, Sal Sagev Bar, Mayor Howell C. Garrison, El Cortez Hotel, Fred Gilman, Otis Smith, Isley Saddle Shop, J.C. Penny, Ullow's Studio, Silver State News, Jerry Crow, Clive Leonard, Jim Cashman, Roy Cram, Motor Supply, Lou DuBoise, White Spot Cafe, Boulder Drug, Spic & Span, White Cross Drug, Las Vegas Hardware, Fanny's Dress Shop, Bill Connell, Poolly Jean's State Cafe, and Christensen Jewelry. Individual event sponsors were: Calf roping by Guy McAfee, bareback riding by R. J. Kaltenborn, burro roping by local business men, bronc riding by El Rancho Vegas, and bull dogging by the Boulder Club.

Regarding Fanny's Dress Shop:

"I believe that her particular building was part of an older building that was later, due to the fact that she felt that she had to have a more modern structure because of selling modern-day women's clothes, remodeled into a more up-to-date period from the original structure." - William Moore, August 1981

Regarding other shops:

"There was a rock shop there. They sold various and sundry rocks of all descriptions and geological periods. And there was a leather shop. There was a shop there that sold paintings of various Nevada artists of that particular period, paintings of the old towns, the old equipment, horses, so forth, Western subjects. They were leased, most of them on a monthly basis against a percentage of their profits." - William Moore, August, 1981

Moore had stated that his budget for entertainment in the resort's first year was $185,000.

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